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Posted 24 Sep 2002

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# Finding Similiar Images

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## Introduction

Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) should be the right title for this article. CBIR is a way to index or find a similarity between images in a multimedia database. There are methods such as Fourier Transform, Hough Transform, Wavelet Transform, Gabor Transform, Hadamard transform coefficients to be used as engine in CBIR system. Retrieval by image content has received great attention in the last decades. Several techniques have been proposed to the problem of finding or indexing images based on their contents. Each method used has strong and weak points.

In this article I try to give an overview view about CBIR because this kind of topics is the most frequently asked question in Digital Image Processing. Here I used CxImage library from Davide Pizzolato (http://www.aoi.it). The latest version of CxImage library contain a function to transform an image into it's frequency domain that is `FFT2` function. The technique I used here is not really efficient but at least this article will guide you to more advanced CBIR.

If you want more efficient method try to follow this links http://debut.cis.nctu.edu.tw/pages/slides/jeffrey/present2.pdf and http://www.telecom.tuc.gr/paperdb/icassp99/PDF/AUTHOR/IC991221.PDF

## Finding Similiar Images

There are 4 steps to perform image retrieval based on the similarity:

1. Load Query Image (Image we want to search for or find images similar to this)
2. Generate Signature of Key Image using Fourier Transform
3. For every images in the database Load and generate the signature
4. Calculate Euclidean Distance for Key Image Signature and Database Image Signature
5. Put the value in a auto-sorted listbox to make similarity investigation easier because smallest value stay in the top of the list and step down for similar images.

The image similarity depend on Euclidean Distance. The smaller the distance the image will get more similar. In measuring similarity, there are few famous math formulas such as Dice similarity coefficients, Jackard, Otsuka, Simpson, Manhattan, Robinson, and more.

## The libraries used:

1. CxImage (http://www.aoi.it)
3. CDirDialog (I forgot the creator)

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

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 Re: I have built this project successfully jotsna Waghmare26-Mar-12 23:31 jotsna Waghmare 26-Mar-12 23:31
 Enquiry about the whole program keigotheboss19-Oct-06 7:41 keigotheboss 19-Oct-06 7:41
 error C2039: 'Load' : is not a member of 'CxImage' naraimha1-Jul-06 0:39 naraimha 1-Jul-06 0:39
 plz give me compiled exe file. Myoung-Gyu Kim6-Jun-06 19:07 Myoung-Gyu Kim 6-Jun-06 19:07
 where is demo.lib? 12345life28-Feb-06 21:20 12345life 28-Feb-06 21:20
 why ali2121212121212110-Feb-06 1:13 ali21212121212121 10-Feb-06 1:13
 Re: i have serious problem uumeme22-Aug-05 19:38 uumeme 22-Aug-05 19:38
 I get the same problem about demo.lib. I can find demod.lib in folder cximage599c_full\bin only. I try to rename demod.lib to demo.lib and copy all the necessary libraries from other debug folders, then run it. It gives many error messages. It said the program cannot link the symbols: jas_comprof, jas_free, jas_image_chclrspc,....etc Pls help me
 Re: i have serious problem uumeme12-Sep-05 2:16 uumeme 12-Sep-05 2:16
 help me to execute this project spike2028-Jul-05 4:53 spike20 28-Jul-05 4:53
 Re: help me to execute this project Myoung-Gyu Kim6-Jun-06 17:27 Myoung-Gyu Kim 6-Jun-06 17:27
 Missing the file j2000.lib toknow2-Jun-05 3:01 toknow 2-Jun-05 3:01
 Re: Missing the file j2000.lib Myoung-Gyu Kim6-Jun-06 17:23 Myoung-Gyu Kim 6-Jun-06 17:23
 error:cximage.lib Anonymous24-May-05 19:59 Anonymous 24-May-05 19:59
 where is the "ximage.h" zhang030112719-May-05 16:49 zhang03011271 9-May-05 16:49
 Re: where is the "ximage.h" WREY20-May-05 6:16 WREY 20-May-05 6:16
 Re: where is the "ximage.h" djechelon10-Jan-08 5:27 djechelon 10-Jan-08 5:27
 Crash when iPixelSize=3; seiby31-Mar-05 10:18 seiby 31-Mar-05 10:18
 Re: Crash when iPixelSize=3; seiby31-Mar-05 11:54 seiby 31-Mar-05 11:54
 Does any have complete working project? yateee21-Mar-05 21:41 yateee 21-Mar-05 21:41
 where is ximage.h ? 1lokii14-Dec-04 1:45 1lokii 14-Dec-04 1:45
 THere is a question wazdxm17-Sep-04 16:46 wazdxm 17-Sep-04 16:46
 Cannot open include file: 'ximage.h' h.tarik7-Apr-04 9:19 h.tarik 7-Apr-04 9:19
 Re: Cannot open include file: 'ximage.h' Anonymous14-Jun-04 5:52 Anonymous 14-Jun-04 5:52
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