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Posted 29 Jun 2020

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Number.cs for General Purpose Number Handling in C#

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25 Sep 2020Ms-RL5 min read
An wrapper class for Number operations in C#
As C# does not offer a underlying base class for Numbers, you have to write one that can work with all numbers without specifying the Type directly

Introduction

As I am working on my Project Morestachio, I wanted to allow users to either supply numbers from code but also allow number operations in my Template. That was where the trouble started and I needed to operate on two numbers that might not be the same or have unknown types. As I already had to write a parser to get the number from the text template, I decided to allow all numbers to be wrapped into the Number.cs class and implemented all common operations on it.

Hint: The source on github contains references to the Morestachio Project within the MorestachioFormatter region. If you want to use only the Number.cs class, you are safe to delete this whole region. The Number.cs attached to this tip does not contain this region!

Background

Number.cs is of interest for everyone who got numbers but without knowing what the number represents. Number.cs can parse any number from string according the rules of C# (Integral numeric types (C# reference) and Real literals).

Using the Code

Number.cs has three different ways in which to create a new instance of Number.cs:

  1. bool Number.TryParse(string, CultureInfo, out Number).

    This tries to parse a string into a number based on the literal and the C# rules.

  2. Number.ctor(long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal)

    Use the constructor to create a new number with the internal .NET type

  3. implicit operator Number(Long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal)

    Number.cs implements the implicit casting operator for all .NET Number types

You can get a list of all supported .NET types by calling Number.CsFrameworkIntegralTypes and Number.CsFrameworkFloatingPointNumberTypes respectively. Note that those lists are only informatial.

Now that you got your instance of Number.cs, you can make operations with it. There are two general ways in operating with Number.cs:

  1. Call the operation functions like:
    • Add(Number): Number
    • Substract(Number): Number
    • Multiply(Number): Number
    • Divide(Number): Number
    • Modulo(Number): Number
    • ShiftLeft(Number): Number
    • ShiftRight(Number): Number
    • GreaterThen(Number): bool
    • LessThen(Number): bool
    • Equals(Number): bool
    • Same(Number): bool
    • IsNaN(): bool
    • Max(Number): Number
    • Min(Number): Number
    • Pow(Number): Number
    • Log(Number): Number
    • Log10(Number): Number
    • Negate(): Number
    • Abs(): Number
    • Round(Number): Number
    • Sin(): Number
    • Sinh(): Number
    • Sqrt(): Number
    • Tanh(): Number
    • Cos(): Number
    • Cosh(): Number
    • Acos(): Number
    • Asin(): Number
    • Atan(): Number
    • Atan2(): Number
    • Truncate(): Number
    • Ceiling(): Number
    • Floor(): Number

    Note: Equals(Number) will first check if both numbers are of the same .NET type and then call Same(Number) for value equality check

  2. Use C# operators. Number.cs implements the following operators on itself:
    • Number + Number
    • Number++
    • Number - Number
    • Number--
    • Number << Number
    • Number >> Number
    • Number == Number
    • Number != Number
    • Number < Number
    • Number > Number
    • Number <= Number
    • Number >= Number

In addition to these operations on itself (Number + Number or Number < Number), you can also use the following operators on all other .NET number types:

  • Number + long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal
  • Number - long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal
  • Number * long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal
  • Number / long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal
  • Number % long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal

These operators just call the methods from point 1.

Number.cs takes care of the implicit conversion of values from an operation. That means like in cs if you add two numbers together where one number is a floating point number, the result will always be a floating point number of the same type and if you add two integers together, the result will always be of the type that has more precision. This is done by a rating of numbers that exists within the Number.CsFrameworkFloatingPointNumberTypes and Number.CsFrameworkIntegralTypes. The function Number.GetOperationTargetType will return the type that takes prevalence over another. The operation then always looks the same like this:

Example Add Method:

C#
/// <summary>
/// Adds the two numbers together
/// </summary>
/// <param name="other"></param>
/// <returns></returns>
public Number Add(Number other)
{
    var targetType = GetOperationTargetType(this, other);
    if (targetType == typeof(decimal))
    {
        return new Number(ToDecimal(null) + other.ToDecimal(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(double))
    {
        return new Number(ToDouble(null) + other.ToDouble(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(float))
    {
        return new Number(ToSingle(null) + other.ToSingle(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(ulong))
    {
        return new Number(ToUInt64(null) + other.ToUInt64(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(long))
    {
        return new Number(ToInt64(null) + other.ToInt64(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(uint))
    {
        return new Number(ToUInt32(null) + other.ToUInt32(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(int))
    {
        return new Number(ToInt32(null) + other.ToInt32(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(ushort))
    {
        return new Number(ToUInt16(null) + other.ToUInt16(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(short))
    {
        return new Number(ToInt16(null) + other.ToInt16(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(byte))
    {
        return new Number(ToByte(null) + other.ToByte(null));
    }
    if (targetType == typeof(sbyte))
    {
        return new Number(ToSByte(null) + other.ToSByte(null));
    }
    throw new InvalidCastException($"Cannot convert {other.Value} 
    ({other.Value.GetType()}) or {Value} ({Value.GetType()}) to a numeric type");
}

The same as over other number type the object Number.cs is implemented as a readonly struct and is immutable. The code is tested and implemented for:

  • netstandard2.0
  • netcoreapp2.0 netcoreapp2.1 netcoreapp2.2 netcoreapp3.0
  • net46 net461 net462
  • net47 net471 net472

Other Methods

Number.cs has methods for checking ether an Number or an object for ether beeing an Floating point number or an Integral number.

  • static IsFloatingPointNumber(Number|object): bool
  • static IsIntegralNumber(Number|object): bool

It also contains fields for:

  • static readonly Zero: Number //a field representing an 0 int
  • static readonly MinusOne: Number //a field representing an negative 1 int
  • static readonly NaN: Number //this is a wrapper to the double.NaN value

To be comparable and equaltable with all possible values, Number.cs also implements the following interfaces:

  • IComparable
  • IComparable<Number|long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal>
  • IEquatable<Number|long|ulong|int|uint|byte|sbyte|short|ushort|float|double|decimal>

At last, you can also use the AsParsableString method to get a reparsable string.

A Word on Performance

I recently did some performance tests as I was interested in how much time was spent on casting and evaluation of the right operation type and I was not surprised that the Number.cs class is around ~2000 times slower than the native operation. But this was mostly due to unoptimised code. I tested 10.000.000 add operations with the C# native + operator on 2 ints and done the same with two Number.cs classes. I (unsurprisingly) found that 2 major performance problems where the enumeration of the list of Number.CsFrameworkIntegralTypes, Number.CsFrameworkFloatingPointNumberTypes and to some extent surprisingly for me, the performance of the Number.Value getter. So I hard-coded the Number.GetOperationTargetType and removed the access to the Number.Value and access the value directly via its member variable. That helped a lot and Number.cs is now "only" ~140 times slower than a native operation.

Points of Interest

I looked into a lot of code on github and everywhere else and was not able to find something like this general purpose so I decided to write it myself. I will keep developing the number.cs class as I might want to support more functions like added support for Math functions in the future, so checkout the original file.

The Morestachio Project

Number.cs is part of Morestachio, an project for Text Transformation completely written in C#. It would be very kind of you if you check it out:

History

  • 28th June, 2020: Init commit
  • 16th September, 2020: Updated version to 2.0 containing performance fixes and additional math methods
  • 25th September, 2020: Updated version to 3.0 containing more Math functions and better code comments

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under Microsoft Reciprocal License


Written By
Software Developer Freelancer
Germany Germany
A nice guy.
And WPF Developer.
And asp.net.

like everything I can get my hand on in .net.
But never java.

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionWell done, excellent job Pin
AFMatambo28-Sep-20 11:52
AFMatambo28-Sep-20 11:52 
AnswerRe: Well done, excellent job Pin
GerVenson30-Sep-20 8:11
professionalGerVenson30-Sep-20 8:11 
QuestionIt is very expensive code Pin
TymekMM25-Sep-20 7:32
TymekMM25-Sep-20 7:32 
AnswerRe: It is very expensive code Pin
GerVenson25-Sep-20 15:41
professionalGerVenson25-Sep-20 15:41 
AnswerRe: It is very expensive code Pin
Hynek Syrovatka29-Sep-20 5:57
Hynek Syrovatka29-Sep-20 5:57 
GeneralRe: It is very expensive code Pin
GerVenson29-Sep-20 7:45
professionalGerVenson29-Sep-20 7:45 
good idea but this is not possible here. Pattern matching switch can be used to check object types, but i only have the type from Type that is always of the same type.
public Number Add(Number other)
{
    var targetType = GetOperationTargetType(this, other);
    switch (targetType)
    {
        case typeof(decimal):
            return new Number(ToDecimal(null) + other.ToDecimal(null))
    }
will not compile
GeneralRe: It is very expensive code Pin
Hynek Syrovatka29-Sep-20 22:21
Hynek Syrovatka29-Sep-20 22:21 
QuestionCan this be done? Pin
Niels H.17-Sep-20 1:07
Niels H.17-Sep-20 1:07 
AnswerRe: Can this be done? Pin
GerVenson21-Sep-20 5:04
professionalGerVenson21-Sep-20 5:04 
QuestionMorestachio.Formatter.Framework Pin
krunoslav ostrouska5-Jul-20 23:40
krunoslav ostrouska5-Jul-20 23:40 
AnswerRe: Morestachio.Formatter.Framework Pin
GerVenson16-Jul-20 10:38
professionalGerVenson16-Jul-20 10:38 
GeneralRe: Morestachio.Formatter.Framework Pin
krunoslav ostrouska23-Jul-20 22:46
krunoslav ostrouska23-Jul-20 22:46 
SuggestionBiggerAs(Number) and SmallerAs(Number) methods Pin
Henk van der Geld3-Jul-20 10:07
Henk van der Geld3-Jul-20 10:07 
GeneralRe: BiggerAs(Number) and SmallerAs(Number) methods Pin
GerVenson16-Jul-20 10:41
professionalGerVenson16-Jul-20 10:41 
GeneralRe: BiggerAs(Number) and SmallerAs(Number) methods Pin
the Kris17-Sep-20 9:03
the Kris17-Sep-20 9:03 
GeneralRe: BiggerAs(Number) and SmallerAs(Number) methods Pin
GerVenson26-Sep-20 8:47
professionalGerVenson26-Sep-20 8:47 
QuestionConsider to use Type.GetTypeCode() Pin
Christian Vogt29-Jun-20 12:14
professionalChristian Vogt29-Jun-20 12:14 
AnswerRe: Consider to use Type.GetTypeCode() Pin
GerVenson29-Jun-20 12:18
professionalGerVenson29-Jun-20 12:18 
GeneralRe: Consider to use Type.GetTypeCode() Pin
the Kris30-Jun-20 2:45
the Kris30-Jun-20 2:45 

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