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Posted 5 Aug 2008


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Efficient Server-Side View State Persistence

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4.96/5 (28 votes)
8 Aug 2008Ms-PL7 min read
Increasing the performance of your ASP.NET website by reducing the download footprint of your pages.


View State is a mechanism employed by ASP.NET web pages to persist the state of the page itself, individual controls, objects, and data that are housed on that particular ASP.NET web page. View State is a double edged sword in that using it properly allows the developer to build full and robust web applications that seem to overcome the stateless nature of the web.

As the complexity of our web applications grow, more and more controls get added to the screen, more and more data needs to be persisted... View State grows. There's no way to avoid it. Even if we are diligent in our efforts in only making sure that those things that need View State are the only ones with it turned on, View State can grow to several kilobytes in size. It's not uncommon to have View State sizes that run into the 50K to 100K range on custom intranet/extranet applications.


Scott Mitchell wrote an excellent article on View State some years ago that was published on MSDN. I won't go into the details on View State that he does (since he's already done an excellent job), but I will mention a few things:

  1. To much of a good thing... By default, every control that you add to an ASP.NET web page has View State enabled. Every button, label, grid, drop down.. everything. That means, every control on your page makes the size of the View State grow.
  2. View State is persisted in the HTML markup. That's right boys and girls. Every control on your page that makes use of View State makes that View State bigger.. makes your overall page size bigger as well.
  3. View State travels both ways. Since View State is used by ASP.NET, and ASP.NET only exists on the server, the View State that was sent down to the browser has to be sent back to the server for it to be used. Yes, that includes partial page updates with AJAX as well.
  4. View State is ONLY used on the server. I know I said this in #3, but it bears repeating here... the only place that View State is ever used is on the server, by the ASP.NET runtime...


  1. The View State needs to be persisted on the server.
  2. The View State persistence mechanism needs to be identified by a specific user session.
  3. The persisted View State artifact must not be allowed to remain forever.
  4. The persisted View State should be able to be enabled and disabled on a page by page bases.
  5. Different persistence mechanisms should be able to be used.
  6. Page development and structure should not be modified.

Control Adapters to the Rescue

Since the ASP.NET Page object, at its core, is a control (granted.. it is *the* control.. but a control nonetheless), we're able to modify its behavior with a simple control adapter. Typically, when speaking about control adapters, the development community at large thinks about CSS Control Adapters.

MSDN defines control adapters thusly: Control adapters are components that override certain Control class methods and events in its execution lifecycle to allow browser or markup-specific handling. The .NET Framework maps a single derived control adapter to a Control object for each client request.

I discovered this rather excellent article by Robert Boedigheimer on using Server Side View State in ASP.NET using the SessionPageStatePersister. I knew then that this was the road I wanted to go down... although using the SessionPageStatePersister would run into the same problems with finite memory resources.. so that as a brush stroke solution wouldn't do...

My solution actually contains two parts. The first part is the control adapter PageStateAdapter, and the second is the custom persistence mechanism CachePageStatePersister.


To solve my requirements #4 and #5, I decided to go with a simple attribute scheme, where basically, the developer can decide to use a different View State persistence scheme simply by putting an attribute at the top of the page's class definition. The attribute class and supporting enum are both defined in the PageStateAdapter class.

public enum StateStorageTypes { Default, Cache, Session, InPage }

[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class, AllowMultiple = false, Inherited = true)]
public class PageViewStateStorageAttribute : Attribute
    private readonly StateStorageTypes storageType = StateStorageTypes.Default;

    public PageViewStateStorageAttribute(StateStorageTypes stateStorageType)
        storageType = stateStorageType;

    internal StateStorageTypes StorageType
        get { return storageType; }

Now, all the PageStateAdapter has to do is implement the virtual method GetStatePersister.

public override PageStatePersister GetStatePersister()
    PageViewStateStorageAttribute psa =
           typeof(PageViewStateStorageAttribute), true) as 
           PageViewStateStorageAttribute ?? 
           new PageViewStateStorageAttribute(StateStorageTypes.Default);

    PageStatePersister psp;
    switch (psa.StorageType)
        case StateStorageTypes.Session:
            psp = new SessionPageStatePersister(Page);
        case StateStorageTypes.InPage:
            psp = new HiddenFieldPageStatePersister(Page);
            psp = new CachePageStatePersister(Page);
    return psp;

If a developer wishes to override the (now) default View State persistence method of CachePageStatePersister, they can do so by applying a simple attribute to the page class declaration.

public partial class ViewStateInPage : System.Web.UI.Page


The CachePageStatePersister inherits from PageStatePersister. So, all it has to do is implement the two virtual methods Load() and Save().

public override void Save()
    if (ViewState != null || ControlState != null)
        if (Page.Session == null)
            throw new InvalidOperationException(
                "Session is required for CachePageStatePersister (SessionID -> Key)");

        string vsKey;
        string cacheFile;
        // create a unique cache file and key based on this user's
        // session and page instance (time)
        if (!Page.IsPostBack)
            string sessionId = Page.Session.SessionID;
            string pageUrl = Page.Request.Path;
            vsKey = string.Format("{0}{1}_{2}_{3}", VSPREFIX, pageUrl, sessionId,

            string cachePath = Page.MapPath(CACHEFOLDER);
            if (!Directory.Exists(cachePath))
            cacheFile = Path.Combine(cachePath, BuildFileName());
        // get our vs key from the page, re use it, and the cache
        // file (pulled from page.cache)
            vsKey = Page.Request.Form[VSKEY];
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(vsKey)) throw new ViewStateException();
            cacheFile = Page.Cache[vsKey] as string;
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(cacheFile)) throw new ViewStateException();

        IStateFormatter frmt = StateFormatter;
        string state = frmt.Serialize(new Pair(ViewState, ControlState));
        using (StreamWriter sw = File.CreateText(cacheFile))

        Page.Cache.Add(vsKey, cacheFile, null, DateTime.Now.AddMinutes(
                       Cache.NoSlidingExpiration, CacheItemPriority.Low,
        Page.ClientScript.RegisterHiddenField(VSKEY, vsKey);

In our Save method, you can see we're doing a number of things.. first is generating a unique View State key (if this is a new page request) based on the page that's being requested, the user's session ID and the time represented in ticks. Then, we're serializing both the View State and the control state to a physical file (in this case, we're storing the file in the ~/App_Data/Cache directory). After the file is created, we store the View State key and the path to the file in the Page.Cache, and save the View State key to a hidden field in the page.

If the page is requested from a POST verb, then we know that we've already got a unique key for this page instance. We extract that key from the page, and the file path from the cache and re use those settings to persist the view state and control state

So, we are mindful of finite server resources by only storing the file path in cache, we are mindful of download page size by only storing the unique key in the page (instead of the entire View State), and by using the Page.Cache object to tie everything together, we're giving our persisted View State files a life time. Notice on the last bit of the Page.Cache.Add() method, we're defining ViewStateCacheRemoveCallback as our callback method when an item is removed from cache.

public static void ViewStateCacheRemoveCallback(string key, 
       object value, CacheItemRemovedReason reason)
    string cacheFile = value as string;
    if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(cacheFile))
        if (File.Exists(cacheFile))

When the cache makes the callback, it passes on what that cache object contained, which we know is the file path to the persisted View State object. All we have to do when we receive the callback is to delete the physical file.

The Load method basically works in reverse of the Save method..

public override void Load()
    if (!Page.IsPostBack) return;
    // We don't want to load up anything if this is an inital request

    string vsKey = Page.Request.Form[VSKEY];

    // Sanity Checks
    if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(vsKey)) throw new ViewStateException();
    if (!vsKey.StartsWith(VSPREFIX)) throw new ViewStateException();

    IStateFormatter frmt = StateFormatter;
    string state = string.Empty;

    string fileName = Page.Cache[vsKey] as string;
    if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(fileName))
        if (File.Exists(fileName))
            using (StreamReader sr = File.OpenText(fileName))
                state = sr.ReadToEnd();

    if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(state)) return;

    Pair statePair = frmt.Deserialize(state) as Pair;

    if (statePair == null) return;

    ViewState = statePair.First;
    ControlState = statePair.Second;

Some points of interest here are... if the page is not working as a post back, we don't want to load our View State from persistence. This solves the problem of a user loading stale data. The Load() method gets its View State key from the page, then gets the path to the persisted View State file from the Page.Cache using that View State key. The file is then read, de-serialized into a Pair object, then ViewState and ControlState are loaded from the Pair object.

The Browsers File

The last point of order is to wire up the PageStateAdapter for use with a simple .browser file located in App_Browsers:

  <browser refID="Default">
      <adapter controlType="System.Web.UI.Page" adapterType="PageStateAdapter" />


View State, while a powerful tool, can very quickly become the demise of your users in experiencing your website to the fullest. By making use of built-in ASP.NET technologies like Cache and Control Adapters, we can effectively and accurately persist View State on the server instead of streaming it down to the user. Using the outlined PageStateAdapter has enabled our developers to make full use of our existing ASP.NET skill set, including our heavy use of ASP.NET AJAX, without having to re-design our entire page framework; it is truly a drop in solution. Our PageStateAdapter method could be very easily modified to persist View State files to a common location for a multi-homed web environment, and the Page.Cache replaced with a common mechanism in that same environment. We've been using this technique in our training environment under both real world load and extreme test load, with very impressive results.

In our code base, we've also added to the global Application_Start and Application_End events to delete all the .cache files that might be present. This takes care of any artifacts that might be around when the server reboots, or that might have been missed in the cache remove callback.

Points of Interest

When we first started down the path of persisting View State on the server, we were stuffing the entire thing into Page.Cache. It worked fine on our workstations and our development server. It even worked find on our training server.. until that training server went under load. 100 users and three hours later, the sever came crashing down, falling flat on its face after running out of memory. Point of Interest: Page.Cache.. is in memory.



This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Microsoft Public License (Ms-PL)


About the Author

Team Leader ICAN
United States United States
Jason Monroe is a Project Manager / Architect with the ICAN grant for the Indiana Department of Education. He has been a professional software developer for 13 years, with the last 8 years focusing on Microsoft technologies.

Comments and Discussions

QuestionCan we set non serializable for page cache Pin
Harshal Agarwal9-Apr-21 9:52
MemberHarshal Agarwal9-Apr-21 9:52 
AnswerRe: Can we set non serializable for page cache Pin
Harshal Agarwal16-Dec-21 10:41
MemberHarshal Agarwal16-Dec-21 10:41 
GeneralMy vote of 1 Pin
Member 82160978-Jul-13 1:37
MemberMember 82160978-Jul-13 1:37 
GeneralIssues with UpdatePanels and partial postbacks? Pin
Ivan Mitev3-Aug-12 0:14
MemberIvan Mitev3-Aug-12 0:14 
QuestionIssues when using the browser Back button? Pin
Ivan Mitev29-Jul-12 22:28
MemberIvan Mitev29-Jul-12 22:28 
AnswerRe: Issues when using the browser Back button? Pin
xMANIGHTx22-Jun-14 0:24
MemberxMANIGHTx22-Jun-14 0:24 
QuestionThank you Pin
Prashant Trambake20-Jun-12 0:43
MemberPrashant Trambake20-Jun-12 0:43 
QuestionThanks a million! Pin
Ben Lenihan30-May-12 7:04
MemberBen Lenihan30-May-12 7:04 
QuestionWorks great! Just one problem we are seeing... Pin
Polleitor28-Mar-12 12:33
MemberPolleitor28-Mar-12 12:33 
AnswerRe: Works great! Just one problem we are seeing... Pin
Ivan Mitev26-Jul-12 5:51
MemberIvan Mitev26-Jul-12 5:51 
QuestionGreat! A question too. Pin
navinmishra13-Sep-11 8:18
Membernavinmishra13-Sep-11 8:18 
BugBroken link Pin
druffyw8-Aug-11 3:56
Memberdruffyw8-Aug-11 3:56 
QuestionRandom errors using page.cache but not Session or HttpRuntime.Cache Pin
maurolo9-Feb-11 22:01
Membermaurolo9-Feb-11 22:01 
QuestionRe: Random errors using page.cache but not Session or HttpRuntime.Cache Pin
Kalpesh Desai28-Oct-11 20:21
MemberKalpesh Desai28-Oct-11 20:21 
GeneralI wanted to make a note of a security flaw in your implemention. Pin
squareplanet11-Jan-10 5:21
Membersquareplanet11-Jan-10 5:21 
GeneralRe: I wanted to make a note of a security flaw in your implemention. Pin
MarjaR11-Mar-11 4:17
MemberMarjaR11-Mar-11 4:17 
GeneralGood solution Pin
Shelly Saunders19-Nov-09 20:29
MemberShelly Saunders19-Nov-09 20:29 
GeneralSuperb! Pin
inharry23-Sep-09 9:36
Memberinharry23-Sep-09 9:36 
Generalgreat solution Pin
sistec21-Aug-09 7:41
Membersistec21-Aug-09 7:41 
GeneralIs it work with .Net 2.0 Pin
maxcom4-Dec-08 3:59
Membermaxcom4-Dec-08 3:59 

I have tried to compile the project in VS2008(.Net 2.0) but compilation failed with error "Child node can not allow". As you have mentioned C# 2.0, Is it possible to use in .Net framework 2.0? and what changes requires?

GeneralRe: Is it work with .Net 2.0 Pin
datacop23-Dec-08 2:48
Memberdatacop23-Dec-08 2:48 
GeneralDateTime Pin
Bernhard Hofmann15-Aug-08 22:09
MemberBernhard Hofmann15-Aug-08 22:09 
GeneralRe: DateTime Pin
datacop20-Aug-08 9:07
Memberdatacop20-Aug-08 9:07 
GeneralRe: DateTime Pin
leegool27-Aug-08 15:57
Memberleegool27-Aug-08 15:57 
QuestionTemp Cache Pin
fire_birdie12-Aug-08 21:39
Memberfire_birdie12-Aug-08 21:39 

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