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Articles / Artificial Intelligence
Posted 4 Feb 2011


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Machine Reasoning in CAD Applictions

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4 Feb 2011CPOL7 min read
This article presents the use of inference engine to implement mechanisms that automatically detect design errors and generate design tips in CAD (Computer Aided Design) applications. The article discusses a number of implementation issues, that can be avoided by using an inference mechanisms. Th


Nowadays a growth in productivity of an experienced designer is possible only through the use of more advanced software such as CAD (Computer Aided Design) applications. Historically, the first such programs created in the sixties of the twentieth century (such as Sketchpad), were created mainly to drawing. However, the basic and most important advantage of these applications over a piece of paper was easiness of editing individual elements without having to redraw the whole project.

As the computers became more efficient, new capabilities have been added to CAD applications like an automation of some design steps. Vendors made available many ready to use components, and pushed more and more tasks into a machine – complicate calculation, analysis, etc. In the mean time CAD applications became better and better at automatic verification of design correctness. Today they also enforce a use of good design practices on their users.

In contemporary CAD applications the user interface design and advancement in automatic verification of design errors are among top factors that decide about their commercial success. The problem is that implementation of an automatic verifications mechanisms is not a trivial task that, if not done carefully, can introduce many errors and drag performance down to an unacceptable level.

WAN Calculator

Our company ITI EMAG ( among many services offers designing wide area networks. In order to reduce costs we decided to built the WAN calculator application to automate parts of this task.

Figure 1 shows application’s main window. The application allows designing wide area networks as graph structures, where vertices represent locations (places where IT infrastructure is located) and edges represent connections between locations.


Fig. 1 Main window of WAN Calculator

Analysis Abstract

In course of requirements analysis we fund that the most important factor that eases work of a wide area network designer is an automatic and interactive error detection mechanism.

At the implementation stage we decided, that error messages generated by this mechanism should be displayed in a dedicated area at the bottom of application’s main window (visible at figure 1), because such solution is common in many integrated design environments.

WAN Calculator’s inner architecture

Figure 2 shows a simplified architecture diagram of our application. There are three main components visible:

  • domain model, that contains all classes describing wide area networks;
  • error detection module, that contains an inference engine and has access to both domain model and user interface module;
  • user interface.
The division into three modules allowed us to define clear interfaces between each part of an application.


Fig. 2 WAN Calculator’s inner architecture

The most common way of modeling application’s domain is object oriented approach. This approach makes a programmer map real world objects into programming language objects. For example in our application we model physical locations like buildings as object of class Location, and connections between locations as object of class Connection.

For CAD applications of his type, a very important factor is an high efficiency of error detection mechanism, which allows it to run in background without noticeable application slowdown. Because of our experience in artificial intelligence, we decided to use an inference engine as a core of error detection mechanism. The choice of Java as an implementation language made JBoss Rules the most suitable implementation, because it can operate directly on arbitrary Java objects.

Implementation Problems

The implementation of error detection mechanism in a CAD application causes problems that need to be solved in order to bring positive user experience. The most important of those problems are:

  • error detection speed;
  • loose coupling between modules;
  • separation of error detection mechanism and domain object model;
  • source code readability.

During analysis phase we fund that in such type of application, a probability of user error is very high, but we were unable to penetrate the whole error space. This made us to define only an initial set of most common design errors that user can make, and to prepare the application for easy extension.

The complexity and abundance of domain object graph may cause some nontrivial obstacles in designing error detection mechanism such as:

  • efficient navigation through object graph;
  • algorithm falling into infinite loop;
  • deformation of domain classes’ interfaces;
  • proliferation of programming languages.
All those problems and their solution are discussed further.

Efficient Navigation through Object Graph

The strategy of navigation through domain object graph seems to be the most important problem. It’s solution has the greatest impact on error detection speed. Both selection of startup object and path along which an error detection algorithm will follow through graph have remarkable impact on efficiency and complexity of code. Figure 3 presents two extreme paths where path a) is optimal and b) is the worst because it involves multiple inspections of the same object.


Fig. 3 Different paths through domain object graph

The choice of JBoss Rules inference engine which is able to operate directly on arbitrary Java objects, made the graph navigation problem an implementation detail. References to all domain objects are being passes to inference engine, which heavy optimized algorithms enable it to work interactively without noticeable computation overhead. The forward chaining algorithm which powers JBoss Rules inference engine can potentially cause considerable memory overhead. This overhead may cripple application’s performance but performance tests that used projects containing about 200 interconnected localizations revealed no noticeable performance loss even on modest desktop hardware.

Algorithm falling into infinite loop

The second problem with graph navigation is possibility of error detection algorithm to fall into an infinite loop. This applies especially to "naive implementations" of navigation algorithms with sloppy cycles detection. Figure 4 presents a situation that can take place during processing an object graph with cycles.


Fig. 3 Error detection algorithm falling into an infinite loop

A well tested, production ready inference engine like JBoss Rules, lets us ignore this problem entirely because it handles cycle detection internally.

Deformation of Domain classes’ Interfaces

Implementing terror detection mechanism in domain classes causes the deformation of their interfaces by introduction of error detection methods. This introduces so called “leaky abstractions”. Another unwanted side effect is tight coupling of domain classes. Mixing error detection code and domain classes code is generally a bad idea because these are two separate aspects that should be kept separately.

The use of inference engine allowed us to separate error detection code from domain classes. The physical separation of those two aspects has a positive impact on program architecture and code readability. This solution is also more flexible in situations when domain model needs to be modified. Adding new error definitions is also quite simple.

Unfortunately, full separation of error detection code and domain classes code is sometimes impractical or even impossible. Sometimes it is easier and more elegant to implements some imperative calculations in domain classes and use a calculated result in logic formula than to force those calculations into the logic formula itself. In every such situation a programmer is ought to weight all pros and cons and choose the more sensible and readable solution.

Application's source code.

Hand implementing error detection mechanisms causes substantial complexity and low readability of code covering error definitions. It is simple to transform en error definition like

"negative value of price is incorrect"

into a single if-then statement like

if (price < 0) {
	throw new Exception(…);

It is, however, more difficult to transform a definition like

"a network containing two localizations that are not directly or indirectly connected I errant"

into a readable and comprehensible code, that leaves no doubt about how and if it works.

The use of inference engine and logic programming solves this problem, because all error definitions, either simple of complex take shape like

	error condition
	present error message

For example a formula that detects unconnected network points (localizations) looks like

rule "Unconnected network point"
	$np : NetworkPoint()|
	not (exists Connection (point1 == $np || point2 == $np))
	insertLogical (Hint.newInfo($np, "No connection with other network points."));

and it ca be easily translated to natural language into

	there exists a network point and there are no connections between it and other network points
	show message „Unconnected network point".

A declarative expression of error definition allows for easier detection of implementation errors, that otherwise would be hidden among many Java procedures.

The insertLogical keyword used in the example causes a conditional insertion of object containing an error message into inference engine’s working memory. This object will be kept in this memory and displayed to the user as long as the condition holds true.

The biggest drawback of his solution is the necessity of using two programming languages and two programming paradigms. Domain classes are expressed in imperative Java, and error conditions are expressed in declarative logic. This dualism forces programmers to master both languages and paradigms.


Presented solution worked well in our application and allowed us to implement an efficient and flexible error detection mechanism that can be used in any CAD application. The same error detection mechanism can be used for automatic error correction, though it’s potential user interaction issues have not been researched yet.


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Authors

Łukasz Bownik
Poland Poland
No Biography provided

Tomek Steclik
United States United States
No Biography provided

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