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Posted 24 Sep 2020

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Building a Database Application in Blazor - Part 5 - View Components - CRUD List Operations in the UI

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7 Apr 2021CPOL4 min read
How to build the CRUD List Presentation/UI Layer in a Blazor Database Application
This article describes how to build reusable components for Listing in the Presentation/UI layer of a Blazor Database Application and how to deploy them in Server and WASM projects.

Introduction

This article is the fifth in a series on Building Blazor Database Applications.  The articles so far are:

  1. Project Structure and Framework.
  2. Services - Building the CRUD Data Layers.
  3. View Components - CRUD Edit and View Operations in the UI.
  4. UI Components - Building HTML/CSS Controls.
  5. View Components - CRUD List Operations in the UI.

This article looks in detail at building reusable List UI components and deploying them in both Server and WASM projects.

Repository and Database

The repository for the articles has moved to Blazor.Database Repository.   The older repositories are now obselete and will be removed soon.

There's a SQL script in /SQL in the repository for building the database.

You can see the Server and WASM versions of the project running here on the same site.

List Functionality

List components present more challenges than other CRUD components.   Functionality expected in a production level list control includes:

* Paging - to handle large data sets

* Column formatting - to control column width and data overflow

* Sorting - on columns

* Filtering - not covered here.

The Base Forms

ListFormBase is the base abstract form for all lists.  It inherits from ComponentBase, and contains all the boilerplate code.   TRecord is the dataclass it operates on.   The form uses the

The code is shown below

C#
public abstract class ListFormBase<TRecord> : ComponentBase, IDisposable where TRecord : class, IDbRecord<TRecord>, new()
{
    /// Callbacks for Edit/View/New/Exit Actions
    [Parameter] public EventCallback<int> EditRecord { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public EventCallback<int> ViewRecord { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public EventCallback<int> NewRecord { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public EventCallback ExitAction { get; set; }

    /// Controller Data Service
    [Inject] protected IFactoryControllerService<TRecord> Service { get; set; }
    [Inject] protected NavigationManager NavManager { get; set; }

    /// Booleans for Service and Recordlist state
    protected bool IsLoaded => this.Service?.HasRecords ?? false;
    protected bool HasService => this.Service != null;

    protected override async Task OnInitializedAsync()
    {
        if (this.HasService)
        {
            await this.Service.GetRecordsAsync();
            this.Service.ListHasChanged += OnListChanged;
        }
    }

    /// Call StatehasChanged if list changed
    protected void OnListChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
        => this.InvokeAsync(this.StateHasChanged);

    /// Event handlers to call EventCallbacks
    protected virtual void Edit(int id)
        => this.EditRecord.InvokeAsync(id);
    protected virtual void View(int id)
        => this.ViewRecord.InvokeAsync(id);
    protected virtual void New()
        => this.NewRecord.InvokeAsync();
    protected virtual void Exit()
    {
        if (ExitAction.HasDelegate)
            ExitAction.InvokeAsync();
        else
            this.NavManager.NavigateTo("/");
    }

    /// IDisosable Interface implementation
    public void Dispose()
        => this.Service.ListHasChanged -= OnListChanged;
}

Paging and Sorting

Paging and sorting is implemented by a Paginator class that resides in the ControllerService.   There are UI components that interact with the Paginator: PaginatorControl and SortControl.

You can see PaginatorControl in use in a list form - here in the left side of a button row at the bottom of the form

C#
<UIContainer>
    <UIFormRow>
        <UIColumn Cols="8">
            <PaginatorControl Paginator="this.Service.Paginator"></PaginatorControl>
        </UIColumn>
        <UIButtonColumn Cols="4">
            <UIButton Show="true" AdditionalClasses="btn-success" ClickEvent="() => this.New()">New Record</UIButton>
            <UIButton AdditionalClasses="btn-secondary" ClickEvent="this.Exit">Exit</UIButton>
        </UIButtonColumn>
    </UIFormRow>
</UIContainer>

And SortControl in action in the header row of a list form.

C#
<head>
    <SortControl Paginator="this.Service.Paginator">
        <UIDataTableHeaderColumn SortField="ID">ID</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
        <UIDataTableHeaderColumn SortField="Date">Date</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
        ...
    </SortControl>
</head>

Paginator

The Controller Service holds the Paginator instance used by list forms.   The code is self explanatory, providing the functionality for paging operations.   It's passed to the Data Service to retrieve the correct sorted page through the PaginatorData class.

C#
public class Paginator
{
    public int Page { get; set; } = 1;
    public int PageSize { get; set; } = 25;
    public int BlockSize { get; set; } = 10;
    public int RecordCount { get; set; } = 0;
    public event EventHandler PageChanged;
    public string SortColumn
    {
        get => (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(_sortColumn)) ? _sortColumn : DefaultSortColumn;
        set => _sortColumn = value;
    }
    private string _sortColumn = string.Empty;
    public string DefaultSortColumn { get; set; } = "ID";
    public bool SortDescending { get; set; }

    public int LastPage => (int)((RecordCount / PageSize) + 0.5);
    public int LastBlock => (int)((LastPage / BlockSize) + 1.5);
    public int CurrentBlock => (int)((Page / BlockSize) + 1.5);
    public int StartBlockPage => ((CurrentBlock - 1) * BlockSize) + 1;
    public int EndBlockPage => StartBlockPage + BlockSize;
    public bool HasBlocks => ((RecordCount / (PageSize * BlockSize)) + 0.5) > 1;
    public bool HasPagination => (RecordCount / PageSize) > 1;


    public Paginator(int pageSize, int blockSize)
    {
        this.BlockSize = blockSize;
        this.PageSize = pageSize;
    }

    public void ToPage(int page, bool forceUpdate = false)
    {
        if ((forceUpdate | !this.Page.Equals(page)) && page > 0)
        {
            this.Page = page;
            this.PageChanged?.Invoke(this, EventArgs.Empty);
        }
    }

    public void NextPage()
        => this.ToPage(this.Page + 1);

    public void PreviousPage()
                => this.ToPage(this.Page - 1);
    public void ToStart()
        => this.ToPage(1);

    public void ToEnd()
        => this.ToPage((int)((RecordCount / PageSize) + 0.5));

    public void NextBlock()
    {
        if (CurrentBlock != LastBlock)
        {
            var calcpage = (CurrentBlock * PageSize * BlockSize) + 1;
            this.Page = calcpage > LastPage ? LastPage : LastPage;
            this.PageChanged?.Invoke(this, EventArgs.Empty);
        }
    }
    public void PreviousBlock()
    {
        if (CurrentBlock != 1)
        {
            this.Page = ((CurrentBlock - 1) * PageSize * BlockSize) - 1;
            this.PageChanged?.Invoke(this, EventArgs.Empty);
        }
    }

    public void NotifySortingChanged()
        => this.ToPage(1, true);

    public PaginatorData GetData => new PaginatorData()
    {
        Page = this.Page,
        PageSize = this.PageSize,
        BlockSize = this.BlockSize,
        RecordCount = this.RecordCount,
        SortColumn = this.SortColumn,
        SortDescending = this.SortDescending
    };
}

PaginatorData

This is the class used to pass data into the dat services.   This has to be passed via json though the api so "keep it simple"/

C#
public class PaginatorData
{
    public int Page { get; set; } = 1;
    public int PageSize { get; set; } = 25;
    public int BlockSize { get; set; } = 10;
    public int RecordCount { get; set; } = 0;
    public string SortColumn { get; set; } = string.Empty;
    public bool SortDescending { get; set; } = false;
}

PaginatorControl

The code again is self-explanatory, building out a Bootstrap ButtonGroup.   I've kept away from using icons, you can if you wish.

Razor
@namespace Blazor.SPA.Components

@if (this.hasPaginator)
{
    <nav aria-label="...">
        <ul class="pagination">
            <li class="page-item">
                <a class="page-link" @onclick="() => this.Paginator.ToStart()">|<</a>
            </li>
            @if (this.Paginator.HasBlocks)
            {
                <li class="page-item">
                    <a class="page-link" @onclick="() => this.Paginator.PreviousBlock()"><<</a>
                </li>
            }
            @for (var i = this.Paginator.StartBlockPage; i < this.Paginator.EndBlockPage; i++)
            {
                var pageNo = i;
                @if (pageNo > this.Paginator.LastPage) break;
                @if (pageNo == this.Paginator.Page)
                {
                    <li class="page-item active">
                        <span class="page-link">
                            @pageNo
                            <span class="sr-only">(current)</span>
                        </span>
                    </li>
                }
                else
                {
                    <li class="page-item">
                        <a class="page-link" @onclick="() => this.Paginator.ToPage(pageNo)">@pageNo</a>
                    </li>
                }
            }
            @if (this.Paginator.HasBlocks)
            {
                <li class="page-item">
                    <a class="page-link" @onclick="() => this.Paginator.NextBlock()">>></a>
                </li>
            }
            <li class="page-item">
                <a class="page-link" @onclick="() => this.Paginator.ToEnd()">>|</a>
            </li>
        </ul>
    </nav>
}

@code {
    [Parameter] public Paginator Paginator { get; set; }
    private bool hasPaginator => this.Paginator != null && this.Paginator.HasPagination;
}

SortControl

The SortControl is used in a list header.  It cascades itself and provides the interface into the Paginator for the header columns through a set of public helper methods.

C#
@namespace Blazor.SPA.Components

<CascadingValue Value="this">
    @ChildContent
</CascadingValue>

@code {
    [Parameter] public RenderFragment ChildContent { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public string NotSortedClass { get; set; } = "sort-column oi oi-resize-height";
    [Parameter] public string AscendingClass { get; set; } = "sort-column oi oi-sort-ascending";
    [Parameter] public string DescendingClass { get; set; } = "sort-column oi oi-sort-descending";
    [Parameter] public EventCallback<SortingEventArgs> Sort { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public Paginator Paginator { get; set; }
    public string SortColumm { get; private set; } = string.Empty;
    public bool Descending { get; private set; } = false;

    public string GetIcon(string columnName)
        => !this.SortColumm.Equals(columnName)
        ? this.NotSortedClass
        : this.Descending
            ? this.AscendingClass
            : this.DescendingClass;

    public void NotifySortingChanged(string sortColumn, bool descending = false)
    {
        this.SortColumm = sortColumn;
        this.Descending = descending;
        this.Notify();
    }

    public void NotifySortingDirectionChanged()
    {
        this.Descending = !this.Descending;
        this.Notify();
    }

    private void Notify()
    {
        if (Paginator != null)
            {
            Paginator.SortDescending = this.Descending;
            Paginator.SortColumn = this.SortColumm;
            Paginator.NotifySortingChanged();
            }
        var args = SortingEventArgs.Get(this.SortColumm, this.Descending);
        if (Sort.HasDelegate) this.Sort.InvokeAsync(args);
    }
}

UIDataTableHeaderColumn

This is the UI control that builds out each header column in a list.   It builds out the razor and Css class for the header and notifies the captured SortControl on any mouse click events.

C#
@namespace Blazor.SPA.Components

@if (_isSortField)
{
    <th class="@this.CssClass" @attributes="UserAttributes" @onclick="SortClick">
        <span class="@_iconclass"></span>
        @this.ChildContent
    </th>
}
else
{
    <th class="@this.CssClass" @attributes="UserAttributes">
        @this.ChildContent
    </th>
}

@code {

    [CascadingParameter] public SortControl SortControl { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public RenderFragment ChildContent { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public string SortField { get; set; } = string.Empty;
    [Parameter(CaptureUnmatchedValues = true)] public IDictionary<string, object> UserAttributes { get; set; } = new Dictionary<string, object>();
    private bool _hasSortControl => this.SortControl != null;
    private bool _isSortField => !string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(this.SortField);
    private string _iconclass => _hasSortControl && _isSortField ? this.SortControl.GetIcon(SortField) : string.Empty;

    private string CssClass => CSSBuilder.Class("grid-col")
        .AddClass("cursor-hand", _isSortField)
        .AddClassFromAttributes(this.UserAttributes)
        .Build();

    private void SortClick(MouseEventArgs e)
    {
        if (this.SortControl.SortColumm.Equals(this.SortField))
            this.SortControl.NotifySortingDirectionChanged();
        else
            this.SortControl.NotifySortingChanged(this.SortField);
    }
}

Weather Forecast List Forms

There are three list forms in the solution.   They demonstrate different UI approaches.

  1. The classic web page approach using different RouteViews (Pages) for the record viewer and editor.
  2. The modal dialog approach - opening and closing modal dialogs within the list RouteView.
  3. The inline dialog approach - opening and closing a section within the RouteView to display/edit the record.

The standard WeatherForecastListForm looks like this.   It inherits from ListFormBase with WeatherForecast as TRecord.   It assigns the WeatherForecastControllerService to the base IFactoryControllerService property Service.   Note it has a component Css file defining the custom Css used in the component.

C#
// Blazor.Database/Components/Forms/WeatherForecast/WeatherForecastListForm.razor.cs
public partial class WeatherForecastListForm : ListFormBase<WeatherForecast>
{
    [Inject] private WeatherForecastControllerService ControllerService { get; set; }
    [Parameter] public bool IsModal {get; set;}
    private BaseModalDialog Modal { get; set; }

    protected override async Task OnInitializedAsync()
    {
        this.Service = this.ControllerService;
        await base.OnInitializedAsync();
    }

    protected override async void Edit(int id)
    {
        if (this.IsModal)
        {
            var options = new ModalOptions();
            options.Set("Id", id);
            await this.Modal.ShowAsync<WeatherForecastEditorForm>(options);
        }
        else
            base.Edit(id);
    }
    protected override async void View(int id)
    {
        if (this.IsModal)
        {
            var options = new ModalOptions();
            options.Set("Id", id);
            await this.Modal.ShowAsync<WeatherForecastViewerForm>(options);
        }
        else
            base.View(id);
    }

    protected override async void New()
    {
        if (this.IsModal)
        {
            var options = new ModalOptions();
            options.Set("Id", -1);
            await this.Modal.ShowAsync<WeatherForecastEditorForm>(options);
        }
        else
            base.New();
    }
}

The razor markup.   Note:

  1. The SortControl in the header and the UIDataTableHeaderColumn components building the header with the sortable columns.
  2. The PaginatorControl in the botton button row linked to the Service.Paginator.   Paging is event driven.   PaginatorControl paging requests are handled directly by Paginator in the controller service.   Updates trigger a ListChanged event in the service which triggers a UI update in the List Form.
  3. The BaseModalDialog added if the Form is using Modal Dialogs.
Razor
@namespace Blazor.Database.Components
@inherits ListFormBase<WeatherForecast>

<h1>Weather Forecasts</h1>

<UILoader Loaded="this.IsLoaded">
    <UIDataTable TRecord="WeatherForecast" Records="this.ControllerService.Records" class="table">
        <Head>
            <SortControl Paginator="this.Service.Paginator">
                <UIDataTableHeaderColumn SortField="ID">ID</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
                <UIDataTableHeaderColumn SortField="Date">Date</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
                <UIDataTableHeaderColumn SortField="TemperatureC">Temp.  (C)</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
                <UIDataTableHeaderColumn>Temp.  (F)</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
                <UIDataTableHeaderColumn SortField="Summary">Summary</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
                <UIDataTableHeaderColumn class="max-column">Description</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
                <UIDataTableHeaderColumn class="text-right">Actions</UIDataTableHeaderColumn>
            </SortControl>
        </Head>
        <RowTemplate>
            <UIDataTableRow>
                <UIDataTableColumn>@context.ID</UIDataTableColumn>
                <UIDataTableColumn> @context.Date.ToShortDateString()</UIDataTableColumn>
                <UIDataTableColumn>@context.TemperatureC</UIDataTableColumn>
                <UIDataTableColumn>@context.TemperatureF</UIDataTableColumn>
                <UIDataTableColumn>@context.Summary</UIDataTableColumn>
                <UIDataTableMaxColumn>@context.Description</UIDataTableMaxColumn>
                <UIDataTableColumn class="text-right text-nowrap">
                    <UIButton AdditionalClasses="btn-sm btn-secondary" ClickEvent="() => this.View(context.ID)">View</UIButton>
                    <UIButton AdditionalClasses="btn-sm btn-primary" ClickEvent="() => this.Edit(context.ID)">Edit</UIButton>
                </UIDataTableColumn>
            </UIDataTableRow>
        </RowTemplate>
    </UIDataTable>
    <UIContainer>
        <UIFormRow>
            <UIColumn Cols="8">
                <PaginatorControl Paginator="this.ControllerService.Paginator"></PaginatorControl>
            </UIColumn>
            <UIButtonColumn Cols="4">
                <UIButton Show="true" AdditionalClasses="btn-success" ClickEvent="() => this.New()">New Record</UIButton>
                <UIButton AdditionalClasses="btn-secondary" ClickEvent="this.Exit">Exit</UIButton>
            </UIButtonColumn>
        </UIFormRow>
    </UIContainer>
</UILoader>
@if (this.IsModal)
{
    <BaseModalDialog @ref="this.Modal"></BaseModalDialog>
}

The Views

The application declares a set of intermediate Views for the list forms.   These are common to both the WASM and Server SPAs

WeatherForecastComponent

This is the multi RouteView implementation.   Event handlers are hooked up WeatherForecastListForm to route to the different RouteViews through the NavigationManager.

Razor
@namespace Blazor.Database.Components

<WeatherForecastListForm EditRecord="this.GoToEditor" ViewRecord="this.GoToViewer" NewRecord="this.GoToNew"></WeatherForecastListForm>

@code {

    [Inject] NavigationManager NavManager { get; set; }

    protected override Task OnInitializedAsync()
    {
        return base.OnInitializedAsync();
    }

    public void GoToEditor(int id)
    => this.NavManager.NavigateTo($"/weather/edit/{id}");

    public void GoToNew()
    => this.NavManager.NavigateTo($"/weather/edit/-1");

    public void GoToViewer(int id)
    => this.NavManager.NavigateTo($"/weather/view/{id}");

}

The modal implementation is simple.   It already handles editor/viewer state by enabling IsModal.   You don't really need it as you could declare WeatherForecastListForm directly in the RouteView.

Razor
@namespace Blazor.Database.Components

<WeatherForecastListForm IsModal="true"></WeatherForecastListForm>

The inline dialog is the most complex.   It uses Ids to show/hide the Editor/Viewer through UIBase.

Razor
@namespace Blazor.Database.Components

<UIBase Show="this.ShowEditor">
    <WeatherForecastEditorForm ID="this.editorId" ExitAction="this.CloseDialog"></WeatherForecastEditorForm>
</UIBase>
<UIBase Show="this.ShowViewer">
    <WeatherForecastViewerForm ID="this.editorId" ExitAction="this.CloseDialog"></WeatherForecastViewerForm>
</UIBase>

<WeatherForecastListForm EditRecord="this.GoToEditor" ViewRecord="this.GoToViewer" NewRecord="this.GoToNew" ExitAction="Exit"></WeatherForecastListForm>
C#
@code {

    [Inject] NavigationManager NavManager { get; set; }

    private int editorId = 0;
    private int viewerId = 0;

    private bool ShowViewer => this.viewerId != 0;
    private bool ShowEditor => this.editorId != 0;

    public void GoToEditor(int id)
        => SetIds(id, 0);

    public void GoToNew()
        => SetIds(-1, 0);

    public void GoToViewer(int id)
        => SetIds(0, id);

    public void CloseDialog()
        => SetIds(0, 0);

    public void Exit()
        => this.NavManager.NavigateTo("/");

    private void SetIds(int editorId, int viewerId)
    {
        this.editorId = editorId;
        this.viewerId = viewerId;
    }
}

The RouteViews (aka Pages)

These simply declare routes and the top level form component.

  • Blazor.Database.WASM/RouteViews/Weather/xxx.razor
  • Blazor.Database.Server/RouteViews/Weather/xxx.razor
Razor
@page "/fetchdata"
<WeatherForecastComponent></WeatherForecastComponent>
Razor
@page "/fetchdataInline"
<WeatherForecastInlineComponent></WeatherForecastInlineComponent>
Razor
@page "/fetchdataModal"
<WeatherForecastListModal></WeatherForecastListModal>

Wrap Up

That wraps up this article.   Some key points to note:

  1. There's no differences between the Blazor Server and Blazor WASM code base.
  2. 90% plus functionality is implemented in the library components as boilerplate generic code.   Most of the application code is Razor markup for the individual record forms.
  3. Async functionality is used throughout.

If you're reading this article well into the future, check the readme in the repository for the latest version of the article set.

History

* 25-Sep-2020: Initial version.

* 17-Nov-2020: Major Blazor.CEC library changes.   Change to ViewManager from Router and new Component base implementation.

* 31-Mar-2021: Major updates to Services, project structure and data editing.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Shaun C Curtis
Retired Cold Elm
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Ex Geologist, Project Manager, Web Hoster, Business Owner and IT Consultant. Now, a traveller to places less travelled. And part time developer trying to keep up!

If you feel like saying thanks, the next time you see a charity request, DONATE. No matter how small, no matter who, it'll count. If you have a choice in the UK, Barnados.

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionPictures? Pin
Jeorane Costureiro19-Nov-20 4:35
MemberJeorane Costureiro19-Nov-20 4:35 

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