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Introduction To Scala

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1 Jul 2019CPOL3 min read
This article explains almost the whole story about Scala and its functionality with an example.

Introduction to Scala

Why Scala?

Scala is multi paradigms, it is object-oriented, functional, type-safe, runs on Java Virtual Machine (JVM), immutable oriented which makes it easy to write code with concurrency and parallelism (Synchronize). Scala is scalable and suitable for distributed systems. Scala lines of code are elegant and light because it is functional and uses only expressions without any details with many possibilities to define the anonymous and nested function.

There are two main paradigms, Imperative and Declarative. Imperative languages use a sequence of statements in order to accomplish a purpose, therefore lines of code grow more than functional ones.

What is Functional Programming?

Functional programming is a subset of declarative programming and Object Oriented Programming is a subset of imperative languages. But why is functional programming on the cutting edge of technology? It is because of having efficient and reliable behavior when working with multiple processors or in better words, it has the best performance while working with parallel programming.

Installing Scala

  1. Download Suitable JDK according to an operating system (Linux macOS Windows)
    https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html
  2. Set Java Environment
    Windows

    Advanced system settings -> Environment Variables

    Set var JAVA_HOME = C:\{Java Path}\java\jdk{version}
    	Set system var as Path = C:\{Java Path}\java\jdk{version}\bin
    Linux: Terminal
    Export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/java{version}
    Export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin/
  3. Execute java –version in command prompt or terminal.
  4. Download Suitable Scala according to operating system (Linux macOS Windows)

    Download
    Compared to other programming languages, installing Scala is a bit unusual. Scala is unusual because it is usually…www.scala-lang.org

    Select intelliJ or SBT or other ways to install Scala and select for example, Download the Scala binaries for windows. You can also use:

    https://scalafiddle.io/

    Or you can use command prompt or terminal to run:

    java –jar scala{version}-installer.jar
  5. Test by running scala –version if all is ok!

Scala Project

File -> New -> Project

Image 1

Image 2

Right click on the solution -> src -> New File

Some important facts which must be observed during the code:

  1. Object Name should be equal to this file name, otherwise, there are some difficulties to compile.
  2. Short keys to collapse all methods and classes: Crtl + Shift + -
  3. Short keys to unfold all methods and classes: Crtl + Shift + +

Image 3

File -> Project Structures -> Libraries

Image 4

Image 5

Go to terminal and set your path to your Scala file:

C:\>cd C:\Users\Mahsa\ScalaIntro\src
C:\Users\Mahsa\ScalaIntro\src> scalac ScalaQuickStart.scala
C:\Users\Mahsa\ScalaIntro\src> scala ScalaQuickStart

Image 6

Class — Object — File I/O — Exception Handling

Java
import java.io._
import scala.io.Source
import java.io.FileNotFoundException
import java.io.IOException
import Array._

object ScalaQuickStart {
  def main(args: Array[String]) {
    var inc = (x:Int) => x+1
    println(inc(2))
    val rff = new ReadFromFile()
    rff.read()

    val wr = new WriteToFile()
    wr.write()

    var myMatrix = ofDim[Int](2, 2)

    val bufferedSource = Source.fromFile("C:\\file\\grades.csv")
    for (line <- bufferedSource.getLines) {
      println(line)
      val nums = line.split(",")
      println(nums.head, nums.last)
      //bufferedSource.close()
    }
  }

  class ReadFromFile() {
    def read() {
      try {
        Source.fromFile("C:\\file\\grades.csv").foreach {

          print
        }
      }
      catch {
        case ex: FileNotFoundException => {
          println("Missing file exception")
        }

        case ex: IOException => {
          println("IO Exception")
        }
      }
      finally {
        println("finally runs anyway...")
      }
    }
  }

  class WriteToFile() {
    def write() {
      try {
        val writer = new PrintWriter(new File("C:\\file\\grades.txt"))

        writer.write("Hello Scala")
        writer.close()
      }
      catch {
        case ex: FileNotFoundException => {
          println("Missing file exception")
        }

        case ex: IOException => {
          println("IO Exception")
        }
      }
    }
  }

  class ProcessArray() {
    def read() {
      try {
        Source.fromFile("C:\\file\\grades.csv").foreach {

          print
        }
      }
      catch {
        case ex: FileNotFoundException => {
          println("Missing file exception")
        }

        case ex: IOException => {
          println("IO Exception")
        }
      }
      finally {
        println("finally runs anyway...")
      }
    }
  }
}

Collection

Image 7

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Image 9

Image 10

Image 11

Image 12

Image 13

Function

Image 14

Image 15

Image 16

Image 17

The most important reason why functional programming is on the cutting edge of technology is because of having efficient and reliable behavior when working with multiple processors or in better words, it has the best performance while working with parallel programming.

Avoiding Stack Overflow by Tail Call Optimization

Another reason is that loops and iterations in functional languages will be done via recursion with TCO (Tail Call Optimization). TCO is an approach to call the function without separated stack frames work and it avoids stack overflow. For example, in the below code, Factorial(4) computation needs 4 separate stack frames while the next one in functional languages needs just one stack frame.

It is not TCO:

Java
def factorial(n):
        if n == 0:
        return 1
        return n * factorial(n-1)

This is TCO:

Java
def factorial(n):
            return fact(n, 1)
        
        def fact(n, number):
            if n == 0:
            return number
            return fact(n-1, number*n)

Avoiding Race Condition and Deadlock by the Aid of Immutable Objects as Thread Safe

What Is the Race Condition?

In multi-threading concept, when two or more threads try to catch a shared resource or object at the same time.

What is Deadlock?

In multi-threading concept, when process 1 holds a locked resource 2 and waits for resource 1, while exactly at this time, process 2 holds and locks resource 1 and waits for resource 2.

What is Thread-safety?

In multi-threading concept, thread safe ensures that each thread can perform its execution properly in a simultaneously way without unintended interactions.

What is Immutable?

Immutable object's state or value cannot be changed after creation. a is mutable because its value will be changed:

Java
a = 1
b = 2
a = a + b

In creation time, a should be defined as read-only and immutable to prevent change its value.

Conclusion

Because of immutable as thread safe in functional programming; it is useful for infinitive for or foreach loop — special in mathematic functions — and prevents race condition and Deadlock.

History

  • 1st July, 2019: Initial version

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Mahsa Hassankashi
Doctorandin Technische Universität Berlin
Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iran (Islamic Republic of)
I have been working with different technologies and data more than 10 years.
I`d like to challenge with complex problem, then make it easy for using everyone. This is the best joy.

ICT Master in Norway 2013
Doctorandin at Technische Universität Berlin in Data Scientist ( currently )
-------------------------------------------------------------
Diamond is nothing except the pieces of the coal which have continued their activities finally they have become Diamond.

http://www.repocomp.com/

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionNice scala is great Pin
Sacha Barber1-Jul-19 20:44
mvaSacha Barber1-Jul-19 20:44 
AnswerRe: Nice scala is great Pin
Mahsa Hassankashi1-Jul-19 22:56
MemberMahsa Hassankashi1-Jul-19 22:56 
GeneralRe: Nice scala is great Pin
Sacha Barber3-Jul-19 2:49
mvaSacha Barber3-Jul-19 2:49 
GeneralRe: Nice scala is great Pin
Mahsa Hassankashi3-Jul-19 4:56
MemberMahsa Hassankashi3-Jul-19 4:56 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pin
Igor Ladnik1-Jul-19 17:51
professionalIgor Ladnik1-Jul-19 17:51 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 Pin
Mahsa Hassankashi1-Jul-19 19:45
MemberMahsa Hassankashi1-Jul-19 19:45 

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