You seem to be mixing up and/or not understand the concepts of the value of variable, how it is stored, and how it is represented on screen in a hexadecimal, decimal, or other form of representation. I strongly suggest you should read up on number bases, e. g. at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radix
Now on to your code:
1. the input string is defined as
. This is the hexadecimal representation of the number 18. The leading "0x" is not an actual part of the number, it is only an indication that the string is a hexadecimal number. As such, it should be skipped when trying to interpret the value! That is what Carlo meant when he said you should feed only "12" to your algorithm, rather than "0x12".
2. You've defined
to be of tpye "array of unsigned char". This is fine if your purpose is to compactly store a number of any kind or any length. But it is pointless if your purpose is to interpret a hexadecimal number and print it in readable (i. e. decimal) form. But let's ignore the latter for the moment:
Hexadecimal numbers are commonly used to represent the content of blocks of memory of arbitrary length. The reason is that memory is organized in bytes, and each byte can hold a value between 0 and 255, and a pair
of hexadecimal digits can perfectly represent that range. So, when you use a tool to look at the contents of some memory block, you'll likely see it arranged in pairs of hexadecimal numbers, where each pair represents the value of one byte of memory.
Your algorithm appears to be doing the opposite, i. e. reading pairs of hexadecimal digits, and convert them back into the byte value they represent. And that value is then stored in
3. Your code breaks down when you try to print out the contents of your reinterpreted byte sequence:
knows how to print out any basic type, such as a single
, or (
. You pass an array of unsigend char however, and that is interpreted by cout as a 0-terminated C-style string! I. e. it will keep on reading each byte, reinterpret it as a printable character
, print that character, and repeat until it encounters a byte with the value of 0. Now, printing an arbitrary value of a byte as a printable character is something that you definitely didn't intend her, and besides, it isn't always possible: some byte values don't correspond to any printable character! Read up on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_encoding
] for more information.
4. There's also the added problem that
is just long enough to hold the reinterpreted byte sequence - 1 byte in this case. It does not have sufficient space to also hold the terminating 0-character that
keeps on reading the memory beyond the end of
until it eventually encounters a 0-byte at some arbitrary location. Of course, the resulting output is equally arbitrary and may even vary if you repeatedly run the program.
a) If you pass an array of char to cout, it will be interpreted as a C-style 0-terminated string, and is expected to be terminated with a 0-byte.
b) A C-style string must allocate one additional byte on top of the length of the stored string to hold the terminating 0-byte.
c) You must ensure that the end of the actual string stored in a C-style string is followed by a 0-byte.
d) If your purpose of a char array is not
to store actual characters, you don't need the terminating 0, but you passing it to cout will output garbage.
5. One thing I can't answer is how to print out
correctly: it depends what you wanted to see. If your input was meant to be just an arbitrary sequence of hexadecimal digits, of arbitrary length, then the best way to print this out on screen is a sequence of hexadecimal digits - i. e. the input string!
But if the input was meant to represent a single number, then your algorithm is doing the wrong thing! In that case, FinalValue should be of type
, not array of